Table 3: Publically available information regarding the use and effectiveness of self-administered helminthic therapy. The descriptions of conditions used are those provided by the participants, so there may be a lack of clear distinction or overlap between conditions that are listed separately (e.g., food allergies vs. allergies), and some terms may not correspond exactly with accepted medical terms. The number of anecdotes involving each helminth or combination of helminths is listed in parentheses beside the helminth. *A positive or desirable outcome was defined as a success, and no effect or a negative effect was defined as failure. As described in Section 2, duplicate individual experiences were eliminated from the study when possible. In addition, approximately 24% of the publically available reports of self-treatment on social media websites did not indicate either a particular helminth, a disease treated or an outcome, and were excluded from the study.


Organism Disease treated (number of observations) Success rate * Organism Disease treated (number of observations) Success rate *

TSO (16) Autism (1) (undisclosed number) 100%; “most” respond well NA (129) Rhinitis (1) 0%
Crohn's disease (3) 66.7% Salicylate sensitivity (2) 50%
Food allergies (1) 100% Sinusitis (4) 75%
Food intolerances (1) 100% Sjögren's syndrome (4) 100%
Lymphocytic colitis (1) 100% Type I diabetes (1) 100%
PANDAS (1) 100% Ulcerative colitis (1) 100%
Parkinson's disease (1) 100% TTO (14) Ankylosing spondylitis (1) 100%
Ulcerative colitis (7) 85.7% Allergies (2) 100%
NA (129) Acne (2) 100% Asthma (1) 100%
Anxiety (1) 100% Autism (undisclosed number) not effective
Allergies (22) 77.3% Barrett's esophagus (1) 100%
Asthma (8) 87.5% Crohn's disease (2) 100%
Autism (undisclosed number) Less than TSO and HDCs Inflammatory bowel disease (2) 100%
Autoimmune hepatitis (1) 100% Lymphocytic colitis (1) 100%
Celiac disease (1) 100% Ulcerative colitis (10) 70%
Chronic fatigue syndrome (4) 50% Ulcerative proctitis (1) 100%
Chronic hives (1) 100% HDC (9) Allergies (2) 100%
Chronic Lyme's disease (1) 100% Allergic rhinitis (1) 100%
Congestion (1) 100% Asthma (undisclosed number) Generally successful
Crohn's disease (19) 94.7% Autism (1; undisclosed number) 100%; generally successful,
Depression (1) 100% but “not everybody” is helped
Eczema (13) 84.6% Bloating, constipation, Generally successful
Eosinophilic esophagitis (5) 60% diarrhea (undisclosed number)
Fibromyalgia (2) 50% Bowel irregularities (1) 100%
FODMAP intolerance (1) 100% Crohn's disease (1) 100%
Food allergies (5) 100% Eczema (2) 100%
Food intolerances (7) 100% Food intolerances (1) 100%
Food sensitivities (2) 100% Irritable bowel syndrome (1) 100%
Fuch's heterochromic iridocyclitis (1) 100% Migraine headache (1) 100%
Gluten sensitivity/intolerance (4) 100% PANDAS (1) 100%
Hashimoto's disease (2) 0% Ulcerative colitis (1) 100%
Hay fever (2) 100% TSO + NA (5) Asthma (1) 100%
Hereditary angioedema (HAE) type III (1) 100% Crohn's Disease (3) 33.3%
Histamine sensitivity (2) 50% Inflammatory Bowel Disease (1) 100%
Hives (1) 0% Multiple sclerosis (1) 100%
Irritable bowel syndrome (11) 81.8% PANDAS (1) 100%
IgA nephropathy (1) 100% Sjögren's syndrome (1) 100%
Lactose intolerance (1) 100% TSO + TTO (3) Crohn's disease (1) 100%
Lupus (4) 75% Ulcerative colitis (2) 100%
Lyme's disease (1) 0% TSO + TTO + NA(2) Allergies (1) 100%
Migraines (1) 100% Asthma (1) 100%
Mixed connective-tissue disease (3) 100% Autism (1) 100%
Multiple chemical sensitivity (4) 100% NA + TTO (27) Acne (1) 100%
Multiple sclerosis (7) 100% Allergies (2) 100%
Nasal congestion (2) 100% Anxiety (1) 100%
Neuropathy (1) 0% Autism (1) 100%
PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune Car sickness (1) 100%
neuropsychiatric disorders associated 100% Chronic bronchitis (1) 100%
with streptococcal infections) (1) Crohn's disease (10) 100%
Perennial nonallergic chronic sinusitis (2) 100% Dandruff (1) 100%
Psoriasis (2) 50% Eczema (1) 100%
Raynaud's disease (1) 100% Eosinophilic esophagitis (1) 100%
Reactive arthritis (1) 100% Food allergies (2) 100%
Recurring nasal polyps (1) 100% Inflammatory bowel disease (2) 50%
Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (1) 100% Mania (1) 100%
Rheumatoid arthritis (1) 100% Multiple sclerosis (1) 0%
Organism Disease treated (number of observations) Success rate * Organism Disease treated (number of observations) Success rate *
NA + TTO (27) Myalgic encephalomyelitis (1) 100% NA + HDC (2) Multiple sclerosis (1) 100%
Papules (1) 100% Poor sense of well being (1) 100%
Ulcerative colitis (2) 100%